Immediate surgery performed to reduce body weight or obesity is called bariatric surgery. It is a surgery in the stomach and intestines individually. People having body mass index above 40 are always prone to such surgeries as a solution to many other associated problems of overweight like heart diseases and diabetes.
Bariatric surgery can be classified it into 2 types namely
- Malabsorptive surgeries which are more invasive in nature and involves removal of parts of stomach and intestines that causes a high intake of calories
- Restrictive surgeries are confined to slowing down digestion and restricting the size of the stomach.
Lap band surgery is an example of Restrictive surgery also known as adjustable gastric band surgery where a synthetic band is placed over the portion of the stomach. Placed just below the esophagus this thin layer of synthetic material limits the capacity of the stomach and reduces the intake that can be taken by an individual. The size of this pouch, however, can be adjusted by the physician and can also be removed as per the need.
Sleeve Gastrostomy is also one such Restrictive surgeries. This is done by stapling and dividing the stomach vertically removing parts of it. The stomach that is left after this surgery is like a sleeve or thin narrow tube hence the name sleeve gastrostomy. This reduces stomach size and in turn, reduces intake. Unlike lap band surgery this change is permanent.
Apart from this, there are other weight loss surgeries like a duodenal switch and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Under Roux -en Y gastric bypass a separate passage is made for the food without affecting the stomach so that the stomach continues secretion of gastric juices and enzymes. The passages finally connects to the small intestine where digestion starts. It acts as a limited to the amount of food that we intake in one single time also as it bypasses the stomach only a part of the calories and nutrients are absorbed.
In case of a duodenum switch, the surgeon closes the middle part of the intestine and attaches the last part of the small intestine to the duodenum which is the first part of the small intestine. Due to the smaller intake of the nutrients, there is a significant weight loss in the individual.
Prior to surgery few tests need to be conducted like growth and nutrition history of the patient, psychological status and, medical health, age passing which an individual is considered for this operation. Usually, the price of this advance level surgery is very high but you can select a reputed hospital for reasonable bariatric surgery cost in India.
Conclusion: There are many complications associated with bariatric surgery like esophagus dilation, Vomiting, Problem in eating food, infection and acid reflux. Long-term problems include ulcers, malnutrition dumping syndrome leading to dizziness and nausea, hernia and low blood sugar. As prevention is better than cure its always better not to let the surgery to take place by following healthy habits like regular exercises, reducing BMI (body mass index) and quit smoking.